Contents Banner Left
Front Cover
Index A
Index B
How To Use This Manual/Introduction
What is a Pest?
A Pest Management Primer
Symptoms and Signs of Tree Injury
Where to Get Help
How to Submit Materials for Identification

How to Identify and Control Pests:
Needle Discoloration
Air Pollution Inury
Balsam Fir Needle Rust
Balsam Gall Midge
Balsam Twig Aphid
Brown Spot Needle Blight
Cyclaneusma Needlecast
Dothistroma Needle Blight
Drought Injury
Eriophyid Mites
Fall Needle Drop
Herbicide Injury
Lirula Needlecast
Lophodermium Needlecast
Naemacyclus Needlecast (see Cyclaneusma Needlecast)
Pine Needle Rust
Pine Needle Scale
Pine Thrips
Rhabdocline Needlecast
Rhizosphaera Needle Blight of Firs
Rhizosphaera Needlecast of Spruce
Salt Injury
Spruce Needle Rusts
Spruce Spider Mite
Swiss Needlecast
Winter Injury
Needle Feeding
Bagworm
European Pine Sawfly
Grasshoppers
Gypsy Moth
Introduced Pine Sawfly
Jack Pine Budworm
Pine Chafer (Anomala Beetle)
Pine Needle Midge
Pine Tube Moth
Pine Tussock Moth
Redheaded Pine Sawfly
Spruce Budworm
Spruce Needleminers
Webworms

Shoot/Branch Injury
Adana Tip Moth
Aphids
Broom Rust of Fir
Cytospora Canker (see Leucostoma Canker)
Deer
Diplodia Shoot Blight and Canker (see Sphaeropsis Shoot Blight)
Eastern Pine Shoot Borer
European Pine Shoot Moth
Frost Injury
Gremmeniella Canker (see Scleroderris Canker)
Jack Pine Tip Beetle
Leucostoma Canker
Nantucket Pine Tip Moth
Northern Pine Weevil
Pales Weevil
Pine Grosbeak
Pine Root Tip Weevil
Pine Shoot Beetle
Pine Spittlebug
Pine Tortoise Scale
Porcupine
Saratoga Spittlebug
Scleroderris Canker
Sphaeropsis Shoot Blight and Canker
Spruce Bud Scale
White Pine Blister Rust
White Pine Weevil

Shoot/Branch Galls
Cedar-Apple Rust
Cooley Spruce Gall Adelgid
Eastern Spruce Gall Adelgid
Gall Rusts
Northern Pitch Twig Moth

Dead Tree and Stem/Root Injury
Allegheny Mound Ant
Armillaria Root Rot
Gopher (See Pocket Gopher or Thirteen-Lines Ground Squirrel)
Meadow Vole and Pine Vole
Mouse (see Meadow Vole)
Phytophthora Root Rot
Pine Bark Adelgid
Pine Root Collar Weevil
Pine Wood Nematode
Pocket Gopher
Rabbit and Hare
Thirteen-Lined Ground Squirrel
White Grubs
Wood Borers and Bark Beetles
Yellow-Bellied Sapsucker
Zimmerman Pine Moth
Pesticide Use

What You Should Know About Pesticides
Types
Names
Formulations
Labeling
Toxicity
Exposure
Entry Routes
Guidelines for Safe Use of Pesticides
Selecting Pesticides
Planning
Keeping Pesticides Out of Groundwater
Protect Nontarget Organisms
Pesticide Emergency
Transporting Pesticides
Storing Pesticides
Handling and Mixing Pesticides
Appying Pesticides
Handling and Disposing of Pesticide Containers
Cleaning Pesticide Application Equipment
Unused and Unwanted Pesticides
Spills
Worker Protection Standard
Keeping Records
Endangered Species Act 134 SARA Title III Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act
Pesticide Poisoning
Poisoning Symptoms
Emergency Action
First Aid
Poison Control Centers
References
General
Technical
Index Page A1 Banner
Common Name Scientific Name
Pests
Adana tip moth
Allegheny mound ant
aphids (also see spotted pine aphid;
xx white pine aphid)
Anomala beetle-see pine chafer
Armillaria root rot
bagworm
balsam fir needle rust
balsam gall midge
balsam twig aphid
broom rust of fir
brown spot needle blight
cedar-apple rust

Cooley spruce gall adelgid
Cyclaneusma needlecast (=Naemacyclus)

Cytospora canker (=Valsa canker) - see
xxLeucostoma canker
deer
Diplodia shoot blight and canker-see
xxSphaeropsis shoot blight
Dothistroma needle blight
eastern gall rust

eastern pine shoot borer
eastern spruce gall adelgid
eriophyid mites
European pine sawfly
European pine shoot moth
grasshoppers
green spruce needleminer
Gremmeniella canker-see Scleroderris canker
gypsy moth
hare, snowshoe
introduced pine sawfly
jack pine budworm
jack pine tip beetle
juniper webworm
Leucostoma canker
Lirula needlecast

Lophodermium needlecast

meadow vole (mouse)
Naemacyclus needlecast-see Cyclaneusma
xxneedlecast
Nantucket pine tip moth
northern pine weevil
northern pitch twig moth
Pales weevil
Phytophthora root rot

pine bark adelgid
pine chafer (Anomala beetle)
pine false webworm
pine grosbeak
pine needle midge
pine needle rust
pine needle scale
pine root collar weevil
pine root tip weevil

Rhyacionia adana Heinrich
Formica exsectoides Forel
Cinara spp.


Armillaria spp.
Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Haworth)
Uredinopsis spp. and Milesina spp.
Paradiplosis tumifex Gagne
Mindarus abietinus Koch
Melampsorella caryophyllacearum J. Schrot
Mycosphaerella dearnessii M.E. Barr
Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae xxSchwein
Adelges cooleyi (Gillette)
Cyclaneusma minus (Butin) DiCosmo, xxPeredoand Minter


Odocoileus virginianus Miller


Mycosphaerella pini Rostr.
Cronartium quercuum (Berk.) Miyabe ex. Shirai,
Eucosma gloriola Heinrich
Adelges abietis L.
Setoptus spp.
Neodiprion sertifer (Geoffroy)
Rhyacionia buoliana (Denis & Schiffermuller)
Melanoplus spp.
Epinotia nanana (Treitschke)

Lymantria dispar L.
Lepus americanus Erxleben
Diprion similis (Hartig)
Choristoneura pinus pinus Freeman
Conopthorus banksianae McPherson
Dichomeris marginella (Fabricius)
Leucostoma kunzei (Fr.:Fr.) Munk
Lirula nervata (Darker) Darker
Lirula mirabilis (Darker) Darker
Lophodermium seditiosum Minter, Staley and xxMillar
Microtus pennsylvanicus (Ord)


Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock)
Pissodes approximatus Hopkins
Petrova albicapitana (Busck)
Hylobius pales (Herbst)
Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands; Phytophthora xxspp.
Pineus strobi (Hartig)
Anomala oblivia Horn
Acantholyda erythrocephala (L.)
Pinicola emicleator lecura (Müller)
Contarinia baeri (Prell)
Coleosporium asterum (Diet.) Syd and P. Syd
Chionaspis pinifoliae (Fitch)
Hylobius radicis (Buchanan)
Hylobius rhizophagus Millers, Benjamin, & xxWagner

Index Page 2  Banner
Common Name Scientific Name
pine shoot beetle
pine spittlebug
pine thrips
pine tortoise scale
pine tube moth
pine tussock moth
pine vole
pine webworm
pine wood nematode

pitch nodule maker-see northern pitch
xxtwig moth
pocket gopher
porcupine
rabbit, cottontail
redheaded pine sawfly
Rhabdocline needlecast
Rhizosphaera needle blight of firs
Rhizosphaera needlecast of spruce
Saratoga spittlebug
Scleroderris canker (=Gremmeniella canker)
Sphaeropsis shoot blight and canker (=Diplodia)

spotted pine aphid
spruce bud scale
spruce budworm
spruce needleminer
spruce needle rusts
spruce spider mite
Swiss needlecast
thirteen-lined ground squirrel
webworms-see juniper webworm, pine
xxfalse webworm, and pine webworm
western gall rust

white grubs
white pine aphid
white pine blister rust
white pine weevil
wood borers and bark beetles
yellow-bellied sapsucker
Zimmerman pine moth
Trees
Austrian pine
balsam fir
Black Hills spruce
Colorado blue spruce
Douglas-fir
eastern red cedar
eastern white pine
Englemann spruce
Fraser fir
Norway spruce
red pine
Scotch pine
Sitka spruce
white fir

white spruce
Tomicus piniperda L.
Aphrophora parallela (Say)
Gnophothrips spp.
Toumeyella parvicornis (Cockerell)
Argyrotaenia pinatubana (Kearfott)
Dasychira pinicola (Dyar)
Microtus pinetorum (Le Conte)
Tetralopha robustella Zeller
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner & Buhrer) Nickle


Geomys bursarius (Shaw)
Erithizon dorsatum L.
Sylvilagus floridanus (J.A. Allen)
Neodiprion lecontei (Fitch)
Rhabdocline pseudotsugae Syd.
Rhizosphaera pini (Corda) Maubl.
Rhizosphaera kalkhoffii Bubak
Aphrophora saratogensis (Fitch)
Gremmeniella abietina (Lagerb.) M. Morelet
Sphaeropsis sapinea (Fr.:Fr.) Dyko
xxand B. Sutton
Eulachnus agilis (Kaltenbach)
Physokermes piceae (Schrank)
Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens)
Endothenia albolineana (Kearfott)
Chrysomyxa spp.
Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi)
Phaeocryptopus gäumanni (T. Rohde) Petr.
Spermophilus tridecemlineatus (Mitchell)


Endocronartium harknessii (J.P. Moore) Y. xxHiratsuka
Phyllophaga spp.
Cinara strobi (Fitch)
Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch.
Pissodes strobi (Peck)
Monochamus spp., etc.; Ips spp.
Sphrapicus varius L
Dioryctria zimmermani (Grote)

Pinus nigra Arnold
Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.
Picea glauca (Moench) Voss
Picea pungens (Engelm.)
Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco.
Juniperus virginiana (L.)
Pinus strobus (L.)
Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.
Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.
Picea abies (L.) Karst.
Pinus resinosa Ait.
Pinus sylvestris L.
Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.
Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.)
xxLindl. ex Hildebr.
Picea glauca (Moench) Voss

Index B Page 1
Tree Species Pests
Green Divider Line
Douglas-fir
Allegheny mound ant, aphids, bagworm, bark beetles, Cooley spruce gall adelgid, eastern pine shoot borer, grasshoppers, gypsy moth, mites, Pales weevil, pine needle scale, spruce budworm, white pine weevil, wood borers

Armillaria root rot, Rhabdocline needlecast, Swiss needlecast
Green Divider Line
Eastern red cedar
Allegheny mound ant, aphids, bagworm, bark beetles, grasshoppers, gypsy moth, juniper webworm, pine needle scale, spruce spider mites, white grubs, wood borers

Armillaria root rot, cedar-apple rust
Green Divider Line
All Firs: balsam, Fraser, white (concolor)
Allegheny mound ant, aphids, bagworm, balsam gall midge, balsam twig aphid, grasshoppers, gypsy moth, Pales weevil, spider mites, spruce budworm, white grubs, wood borers

Armillaria root rot, balsam fir needle rust, Lirula needlecast diseases, Rhizosphaera needle blight
Green Divider Line
All Pines: Austrian, eastern white, red, and Scotch
Allegheny mound ant, aphids, bark beetles, eastern pine shoot borer, eriophyid mites, grasshoppers, gypsy moth, introduced pine sawfly, mites, jack pine budworm, northern pine weevil, northern pitch twig moth, Pales weevil, pine chafer (Anomala beetle), pine needle scale, pine root collar weevil, pine shoot beetle, pine thrips, pine tortoise scale, pine webworm, redheaded pine sawfly, spider mites, webworms, white grubs, white pine weevil, wood borers, Zimmerman pine moth

Armillaria root rot, pine wood nematode, Scleroderris canker
Green Divider Line
Austrian
Adana tip moth, European pine sawfly, European pine shoot moth, Nantucket pine tip moth

Dothistroma needle blight, Sphaeropsis (=Diplodia) shoot blight and canker
Green Divider Line
Eastern White
bagworm, pine bark adelgid, pine root tip weevil, pine tube moth

white pine blister rust
Green Divider Line
Red
Adana tip moth, European pine sawfly, European pine shoot moth, jack pine tip beetle, Nantucket pine tip moth, pine needle midge, pine root tip weevil

Lophodermium needlecast, pine needle rust, Sphaeropsis (=Diplodia) shoot blight and canker
Green Divider Line
Scotch
Adana tip moth, European pine sawfly, jack pine tip beetle, Nantucket pine tip moth, pine needle midge, pine root tip weevil

brown spot needle blight, Cyclaneusma (=Naemacyclus) needlecast, Lophodermium needlecast, pine needle rust, Sphaeropsis (=Diplodia) shoot blight and canker, pine-oak gall rust, pine-pine gall rust
Green Divider Line
All Spruce: Colorado blue, Englemann, Norway, Sitka, white, and Black Hills
Allegheny mound ants, aphids, bagworm, bark beetles, grasshoppers, gypsy moth, northern pine weevil, Pales weevil, pine needle scale, spruce bud scale, spruce budworm, spruce needle miners, spruce spider mites, white grubs, white pine weevil, wood borers

Armillaria root rot, Leucostoma (=Cytospora) canker
Green Divider Line
Colorado blue
Cooley spruce gall adelgid

Rhizosphaera needlecast, spruce needle rusts
Green Divider Line
Engelmann
Cooley spruce gall adelgid
Green Divider Line
Sitka
Cooley spruce gall adelgid
Green Divider Line
White and Black Hills
Eastern spruce gall adelgid, eastern pine shoot borer

Rhizosphaera needlecast, spruce needle rusts