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United States
Department of
Agriculture
Forest Service
North Central Forest
Experiment Station
Northeastern Area
State and Private Forestry
Michigan State Univrsity
Extension Bulletin E-2676



Table of Contents

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Acknowledgments


First Edition: This manual was originally developed as part of a Forest Service technology transfer designed to get research findings off the shelf and into the hands of people who need them. A team of scientists and pest specialists worked with a writer/editor to summarize and compile more than 10 years of research on Christmas tree pests and their control. Much of this research was conducted at the North Central Forest Experiment Station, headquartered in St. Paul, Minnesota. The first edition of this manual was published in 1983.

Contributors to the first edition from the station were: Thomas H. Nicholls, Principal Plant Pathologist; Louis F. Wilson, Principal Insect Ecologist; Darroll D. Skilling, Principal Plant Pathologist; and Marguerita A. Palmer, Associate Plant Pathologist. Contributors from Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry were: M. Kathryn Robbins, Plant Pathologist; and Peter A. Rush, Entomologist. Advisors to the Working Group included: Roger W. Leonard, Assistant Director for Research Planning and Application, North Central Forest Experiment Station; Robert D. Wray, Leader, Information Services, North Central Forest Experiment Station; James B. Hanson, State and Private Forestry Field Representative, Forest Pest Management; and Harold G. Marx, Technology Application Specialist, Washington Office, State and Private Forestry. Janine M. Benyus edited the first edition.

The following people reviewed the first edition: Michael R. Carroll, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources; Gordon R. Cunningham, University of Wisconsin; Patricia E. Gowen, Missouri Department of Conservation; Melvin R. Koelling, Michigan State University; William Merrill, Jr., Pennsylvania State University; Daniel G. Mosher, Michigan Department of Natural Resources; David J. Shetlar, Pennsylvania State University; Gary A. Simmons, Michigan State University; and the following members of the Minnesota Christmas Tree Growers Association: Charles O. Bork, Roger W. Conklin, John W. Donelson, Kenneth E. Goserud, Brad L.R. Johnson, and Thomas Wolcyn.


Second Edition: In 1997 and 1998, the manual was intensively reviewed by entomologists and pathologists at Michigan State University, Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, and the North Central Forest Experiment Station. New information acquired from recent research was added. Minor changes in the format were made to make it easier for readers to use the manual. One important change is that pesticide products have not been included in the new edition. Product registrations vary among states and change frequently, and new products become available each year. Readers are encouraged to consult county Extension offices, regulatory agencies, and regional or state Extension publications for up-to-date pesticide information.

Contributors to the second edition are: Deborah McCullough, Michigan State University; Steven Katovich, Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry; Mike Ostry, North Central Forest Experiment Station; Jane Cummings-Carlson, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources; Glenn Dudderar, Michigan State University; Paula Kleintjes, University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire; Mike Albers and Jana Albers, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources; and Frank Sapio, Michigan Department of Natural Resources. The assistance provided by Alice Kenady, Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, is gratefully acknowledged.

Funding and support to revise and print the second edition was provided through the cooperation of Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, the North Central Forest Experiment Station, and Michigan State University.