Natural Disaster Alert, Response, and Recovery
4.1 Chapter Summary
Identification of an appropriate early warning system for weather related disasters is critical. A variety of methods have been identified. A community must have a plan for responding locally to a natural disaster. The community's plan must be current and kept up-to-date, and the activities outlined in the plan should be practiced and understood thoroughly by all involved parties.
Smaller communities often depend upon the assistance of utilities, private arborists and neighboring communities for aid and assistance. It is critical that smaller communities keep the listing of telephone numbers of these groups current. Most medium- and large-sized communities have some form of a tree management or disaster mitigation plan. Two such plans from the communities of Oak Park, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin are outlined and presented in detail. An example of how a private arboricultural firm works in a natural disaster is also provided. Any size community can take advantage of the services provided by these arboricultural experts.
4.2 Chapter Outline
I. Early Warning Systems
4.3 Early Warning Systems
Using the principles advocated in the foregoing planning and training sections, we recommend one of the following early warning procedures to enhance mitigation: communications with the National Weather Service, a consulting meteorological firm, a designated TV weather channel, or the local municipal police department. With one or more of these procedures in place, a municipality should have at least three to five hours of lead time before most tree damaging weather strikes.
Assuming that the disaster plan for the community has been updated and rehearsed, the Public Works Director, Street Superintendent, or delegate, should alert the designated disaster control supervisor to initiate action. At this stage, public works equipment should be readied for action. Public and volunteer components, cooperating municipalities and contracted tree service firms should be placed on alert and readied for action.
4.4 Disaster Planning for Small-Sized Communities
Early Warning and Immediate Reaction
Municipality population size usually dictates the details and form of the community's disaster reaction response. Refer to Table 2, Northeastern Region Municipalities Mitigation Characteristics, for an illustration of how small-, medium-, and large-sized municipalities of the Northeastern Region numerically aggregate into population classes, percentages of the total number of communities, percentages with mitigation plans, and sources of assistance.
In contrast to medium- and large-sized communities, small communities found throughout the Northeastern United States usually do not administer a public works department or a municipal tree section. Often a street superintendent with a modest staff are all that is available to attend to municipal infrastructure maintenance. Note: Maintenance includes immediate reaction to a disaster.
Smaller municipalities rely primarily on utility companies, private arborists and neighboring municipalities for aid and assistance during natural disasters, and afterwards for clean up. Unfortunately, only about 5 percent of the Northeast's smaller communities possess a detailed mitigation plan. (See Table 2.) Therefore, natural disasters are often managed inefficiently because of inadequate planning.
National tree service firms such as the Municipal Division of the Asplundh Tree Expert Company, the F.A. Bartlett Tree Expert Company, and the Davey Tree Expert Company, as well as smaller, local certified and licensed professional tree service companies stand ready to serve small communities in times of natural disasters. Many of the smaller, local companies are not trained to work near power lines. Fortunately, tree trimmers of the larger firms are qualified to work near energized power lines. In this situation, many utility companies can coordinate and interface with local, private arborists to remove hazardous branches and trees near power lines. Recognizing this need for coordination, communities should plan and prepare for this situation in advance.
Most utility companies can provide smaller municipalities with names, addresses and telephone numbers of local tree firms who can work outside of the power line zone. Note: Smaller municipalities, no matter what size their population, should have a current list of available tree firms. Optimally, in advance of any disaster, the municipality should establish a contract with a fully insured, if possible, ISA certified, local tree service for emergency service.
Tree firms are listed in the yellow pages of the community's telephone directory. In addition, communities may wish to contact the national headquarters of the International Society of Arboriculture, for a list of tree firms are listed in the current ISA member directory. (Refer to the Reference section at the end of this chapter for address and telephone number information.)
4.5 Disaster Planning for Medium-sized Communities Based on the Oak Park, Illinois Plan
The Forestry Division (see Tables 3 and 4) of Oak Park, Illinois, (population 54,900), has devised a major tree damage control plan which is presented and serves as a model for a medium-sized communities (Stankovich, 1991). Table 4 summarizes the responsibilities of the Forestry Division staff.
An outline of Oak Park's Major Tree Damage Control Plan is listed below. It consists of twelve points found under two major headings: "Early Warning," and "Immediate Reaction."
Oak Park Major Tree Damage Control Plan
I. Early Warning
I. Early Warning
A. Supervision of Major Tree Damage Control
The Village Forester, followed by the Assistant Forester (Public Works Foreman), will be in charge of storm clean up efforts. Duties and assignments will be discharged by these individuals to the Forestry Division Leadperson. Should the Forestry Division need the assistance of other Public Works Divisions (upon approval of the Public Works Director) the Forestry Division will contact the appropriate Division supervisors.
B. Weather Warning
In Oak Park, the Forestry Division is informed of potential severe weather by telephone and fax machine from a climatological consulting firm. Three to five hours lead time are usually provided before the onset of weather conditions which may cause tree damage. Note: The most critical period during the year for potential tree damage is when leaves are still on the trees (May through October); however, severe tree damage may occur at any time. Information from the weather consultant is relayed on a weather reporting form.
Based on weather condition information, the decision is made by Forestry Supervisory staff to alert the proper crews. In addition to the initial call from the weather consultant, a system for obtaining supplemental updates on weather conditions is at the disposal of the Forestry Division Supervisory staff. At this time, the equipment used to clean up tree damage should be readied for action.
A system for notifying Forestry Division staff should be established. In certain situations, the Forestry Division staff can be advised by the Police Department that tree damage has occurred in the Village. At other times, staff may be contacted using some form of a "branching" or "phonetree" calling system, where each person is responsible for notifying another. In any case, this system must be established and kept up-to-date for a rapid and efficient storm response system.
In addition, the Forestry Division staff should be provided with a list of emergency telephone numbers that enumerates Village personnel and can assist with situations encountered during severe weather.
II. Immediate Reaction
Tree Damage Clean up Priority
First, all life-threatening situations should be given priority. Supervisors should make an on-site visit to determine the severity of the damage in the event of multiple hazardous situations. Crews should remedy the situation to a point where it is no longer life threatening before proceeding to the next location. Final clean up should wait until all life threatening situations are resolved and all streets have been cleared.
Second, all major property damage instances should be remedied to a point where the crisis is abated. Supervisors should personally inspect and determine the priority of the Forestry Division responses. Again, final clean up at those sites should wait until all streets and specialized areas are cleaned up.
Third, preferential streets (considered to be all main thoroughfares) should be cleared of fallen trees and debris. State and county highway departments may be called to clear U.S., state and county routes. This should be followed by clearing residential streets and then parking lots, cul-de-sacs and other specialized areas, including parks. Because the specialized forestry skills required to abate life-threatening and property damage situations would be utilized immediately, the street clearance work (in case of widespread and severe damage) may not be undertaken by Forestry Division personnel until sometime well after the storm has passed. In this situation, the Village Forester should recommend to the Public Works Director that other public works crews be considered to assist in street clearance work. immediate supervision of these supplementary crews would be under the direction of their respective divisions.
Public Alley Clearance
Many municipalities have the responsibility to provide clear passage through public alley thoroughfares. Often these alleys incorporate the majority of the utility line systems within them. During severe weather, trees growing on private property can fall into the alleyway blocking portions of the alley roadway. Consequently, when trees or limbs fall from trees bordering alleys, they often become entangled with the utility lines. Most utilities prohibit anyone except their own crews from attempting to clear fallen trees from utility wires. Note: This policy varies with utility companies. Because many communities exist within an electrical service district that encompasses multiple municipalities, there is great likelihood that it may take several days to respond to all tree and power line conflicts, particularly during violent weather producing widespread damage. in these instances, barricades should be set up to warn residents of the hazard.
Forestry Division and Street Division Communications
Constant communication during emergency situations is vital. Communication aids in improved response time, efficient crew scheduling, and in alerting emergency personnel of hazardous situations. All forestry vehicles should be equipped with two-way radios. Additionally, pagers are useful communication devices. However, during storm clean up work, the need often arises to contact people who do not use Public Works Department radios. These include: fire and police personnel, utility crews, contract crews employed for storm clean up, and others. Severe storms may destroy normal systems of communication such as radio towers and telephone lines making normal telephone service useless. These systems may not be repaired for days or several weeks. Identify several alternative communication systems for backup. Backup systems may include cellular phones, equipment from other agencies or nearby communities and ham radios.
A listing of Public Works Department equipment and vehicles available for tree clean up work should be developed and kept current. The list may include wood chippers, aerial bucket trucks, refuse packers, prentice loaders, supervisory vehicles, chain saws, barricade and lighting equipment, hand saws and pole pruners.
Additional Equipment and Assistance
When necessary, the municipal administrator may authorize the rental of additional equipment for storm clean up work. A list of potential vendors should be developed and kept current. Additionally, tree contractors may be authorized to work in the community to supplement municipal crews. As with the list of potential vendors, a list of potential contractors should be assembled. Depending on the path of a storm, there may be other municipalities in a geographic area which remain unaffected by the severe weather. Establish a system to contact these communities in the event that they could send staff and equipment to assist your municipality in its clean up efforts.
Brush Removal From Private Property
A system for handling tree debris removed from private property must be identified. Municipalities vary in both practice and policy regarding brush and related wood waste removal, as well as disposal from private property.
Authors' Note: If a major storm makes it difficult for private property homeowners to remove brush and debris, a decision should be made at the municipal level allowing for debris to be collected. Notethata community must determine if it has adequate equipment and staff available to accomplish this often enormous task. It is critical for the municipality to provide guidelines for residents specifying the types, amounts and piling arrangement of the materials that will be accepted. Municipalities may wish to assist private homeowners who will contract with private companies for trimming and removal by providing information about companies that are fully licensed, professionally trained and insured (Hermann, 1993).
Life Threatening Situations and Property Damage on Private Property
Normally, all tree work required on private property is the responsibility of the individual property owner. However, if in the opinion of police or fire department personnel the situation requires immediate attention, then forestry personnel should enter onto private property and take necessary action to solve the problem. Note: The municipality must be properly insured for this tree work to cover any potential lawsuit or liability due to personal injury or property damage. Clean up is the responsibility of the homeowner. Tree damage (during storms) is not limited to public property--it will also occur on private property. The Forestry Division will provide information to residents on how to hire a tree contractor and can also provide a listing of licensed tree contractors. Basic tree care information should also be provided for homeowners.
The Forestry Division develops a budget for normal disposal costs associated with yearly tree maintenance tasks. Major tree debris disposal will require additional funding which may be authorized by the Village Manager.
All Divisions which are involved with storm clean up should keep accurate and detailed records on equipment and staff hours. Their records will provide important information in the event of financial reimbursement from federal or state agencies, or in case of questions or confusion regarding use of staff, equipment or funds.
A critical tool to assist any emergency response is a current tree inventory of all publicly owned trees. Using the inventory, the Forestry Division can determine the actual damage to the urban forest. Accurate damage (in dollars) can be assessed and submitted for potential reimbursements. Specific costs can be developed for the repair of the urban forest (pruning, removal, cabling, and rodding) and for replanting efforts. Experience in other Illinois communities has shown that in the event of major storm damage, substantial monetary reimbursement can be given to communities that can produce accurate documentation of their losses (Skiera, 1990). Federal funding may cover 75 percent of these costs, while State funds reimburse 12.5 percent. The community would then be responsible for the remaining 12.5 percent.
Authors' Note: An additional phase that evaluates response is highly recommended after disaster activities have been completed. Time should be taken to assess response alternatives and activities that worked or failed, in order to maximize or enhance effectiveness during the next emergency.
4.6 Disaster Planning for Large-sized Communities Based on the Milwaukee, Wisconsin Plan
Since 1984, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (population 636,000) has utilized a well-developed "Emergency Storm Response Plan." The plan has been revised five times, with the latest version dated August 15, 1990. The 30-page document was developed by the City's Department of Public Works, Bureau of Forestry, with the guidance of the City Forester (now retired), former International Society of Arboriculture President, Robert Skiera.
For the purpose of this manual, the Milwaukee Response Plan will serve as a model for large-sized communities (Ottman, 1990). The following commentary and procedures are derived or quoted from Milwaukee's most recent plan. Milwaukee's plan attempts to establish uniform operating procedures that will assure efficient and effective response to storm conditions. Timely and effective response to storm situations is one of the primary functions of the Bureau of Forestry. Receiving and analyzing storm warnings, deciding the magnitude and timing of clean up operations, alerting personnel, and continually observing operations and conditions as a guide in directing strategy are all vital parts of these response operations.
Primary responsibility for storm damage clean up lies with the Bureau of Forestry. However, under the direction of the Commissioner of Public Works, all bureaus of the Department of Public Works (DPW) may become involved in storm clean up under major storms or unusual circumstances. Under these circumstances, inter-bureau cooperation in the sharing of staff and equipment is critical to providing the timely and efficient clean up services that the citizens of Milwaukee expect.
The Forestry Division Supervisor has overall responsibility for coordinating storm response. Additionally, the following activities are the obligation of the Supervisor:
The Bureau of Forestry is divided into three major operating units. These units are the Administrative Division, the Forestry or Tree Division, and the Landscape or Boulevard Division.
Under emergency situations, the Administrative Division will serve to:
The Bureau of Forestry shop is also included in the Administrative Division. Also under emergency situations, the Forestry shop gives priority to any storm fighting implement. Personnel are assigned to repair and sharpen chain saws and brush chippers.
The Forestry or Tree Division of the Bureau operates out of three district forestry field headquarters. Each of the three districts is primarily responsible for damage caused within district boundaries. Under emergency situations, the functions of the Tree Division are as follows:
Each district is staffed by a District Supervisor and an Assistant District Supervisor, four working foremen, and approximately 27 arborists. The District Supervisor is primarily responsible for assessing storm damage within the specific district, prioritizing of storm calls, directing field crews in the clean up effort, reporting an assessment of storm condition, and staffing needs and clean up progress to the Forestry Operations Supervisor. Under the direction of the District Supervisor, the Assistant District Supervisor directs field crews responsible for actual work performed in the clean up effort.
In emergency situations, the Boulevard Division personnel are integrated into the Tree Division clean up effort as the need arises. The scope of the involvement of the Boulevard Division is dependent on the nature of the emergency. In the most severe circumstances, the Boulevard Division managers would aid in the pickup of brush. Boulevard Division managers would be assigned to a specific Tree Division district and report to the District Supervisor of that district. Their primary function would be to assist in setting priorities for clean up efforts and to monitor the progress.
Components of the Milwaukee Emergency Storm Response Plan:
A. Chain of command and major
functional responsibilities when a major storm strikes
Early Warning for Large-sized Communities
Without question the most vital, yet least tangible of all the elements of a storm damage operation, is the sifting and analyzing of storm warning forecasts and the making of decisions as to the extent, timing and magnitude of anticipated clean up operations. Milwaukee, like Oak Park, employs a consulting meteorological firm to provide early warning information to the Bureau of Forestry. The consultants transmit by telephone, detailed information in accordance with a check sheet designed specifically to assist the Bureau in making predictions and predictive decisions relative to impending storm conditions. The forecast information, as telephoned to the Bureau, indicates the type of storm, intensity, time and duration, and probability, as well as any changes in the forecast as they may occur. The Forestry Operations Supervisor is responsible for receiving this weather information, reviewing the forecast and directing the appropriate preparation for impending storm conditions.
To assure that a supervisor is available at all times to receive and analyze such warnings, a calling list is provided to the meteorologists on an annual basis. This assures that a logical alerting sequence is followed if the Forestry Operations Supervisor is unavailable.
Once early warning weather reports have been received and analyzed, the Forestry Operations Supervisor, or an alternate, will notify the District Supervisor, or an assistant, of the nature of the warning and the proposed readiness action to be implemented for the storm. Following the Bureau's call-out procedures, the District Supervisor will then contact Bureau personnel to assure personnel availability as is appropriate to the conditions predicted at the time.
The Forestry Operations Supervisor will also alert the City Hall operator of the impending nature of the storm. This is done to assure efficient handling of incoming calls reporting storm damage. If a major or extensive storm is anticipated, the Bureau of Municipal Equipment Dispatcher's Office is also notified so that the appropriate equipment operators can be programmed in the event it becomes necessary to use them.
Due to the many variations in storm types and wind conditions, it is often impossible to predict when extreme, locally severe conditions are to occur. Conditions such as tornadoes, limited down drafts and other locally limited high-wind speed phenomena are not generally accurately predicted, and are therefore, more difficult to react to than sustained high winds, ice build-ups, or anticipated frontal approaches. Once warnings have been received, it is critical that storm conditions continue to be monitored to provide the earliest possible alerting of severe or catastrophic conditions.
Immediate Reaction For Large-sized Communities
Milwaukee's Bureau of Forestry has developed operational procedures for both minor and major natural disasters. By definition, from an operating procedures standpoint, minor storms are those storms in which predicted road blockages, fallen trees and limbs, and large hanging limbs can be properly attended to within the 24-hour period immediately following the storm. Clean up operations, including brush disposal, raking and sweeping, may extend beyond the 24-hour period, but all hazardous situations must have been abated by the end of the 24 hours. Such storms are usually of a magnitude that the Bureau receives from several to 400 damage report phone calls. Additionally, the Bureau relies upon its own resources for immediate damage abatement and debris clean up. Figure 1 illustrates the chain of command for a minor storm.
*Author's Note: The City Hall Operator may only be available to take calls during business hours. Communities may need to identify a person to take calls after regular business hours.
At the major storm level, the extent of the number of calls or the conditions created by the storm will require more than 24 hours to abate hazardous tree damaged conditions. Such storms will generally exceed 400 damage report phone calls. Major storms will require coordination of staff and equipment with the Boulevard Division and possibly with other units in public works. Major storms may also necessitate rental of outside equipment and staff from private contractors to effectively and efficiently complete damage clean up. Major storms generally will have a post-hazard reduction clean up of not less than one week duration, but may be so extensive as to require several months of clean up efforts.
Major storms are rarely predictable as to the extent of the damage that they will cause, because of the nature of the weather phenomena that creates such catastrophic conditions. Escalation from minor to major storm status is dependent on locally severe conditions producing strong gusting winds such as severe down drafts or tornadoes. Figure 2 illustrates the chain of command for a major storm.
A. Chain of command and major functional responsibilities when a major storm strikes
B. Call-out procedure
Under major storm situations, all Tree Division personnel will be called out immediately when a determination of major storm status has been made. The Forestry Operations Supervisor will direct the three District Supervisors and the Business Operations Manager to call out all field and administrative personnel to report to their respective job locations. Because rapid response to storm conditions is essential, a calling chain for each district and the administrative staffs is required.
C. Receiving and dispatching calls
All calls regarding storm-damaged trees should be directed to the Forestry Bureau office. Bureau personnel will staff the phones and take all incoming reports of damage. Where massive damage has occurred, it is particularly important to separate high-priority calls which must be promptly handled from those calls which can be delayed anywhere from several days to a week. Therefore, the following information should be routinely gathered from all callers.
The manner in which calls are dispatched to the field will be determined by the magnitude of the storm. In most instances, calls can be dispatched to the Field Offices by phone. However, under extreme conditions or where damage is concentrated in one area, the only calls that should be relayed by telephone to the field are those involving trees blocking arterial streets, trees down and at rest on homes or automobiles, and tree problems of an emergency or life-threatening nature. All other calls will be forwarded via a Bureau Service Request. Service Requests will be picked up by a mail courier service which will provide continual delivery of Service Requests and necessary supplies and materials from the administrative offices to the field offices. Additional deliveries should be made at intervals not exceeding 90 minutes.
Authors' Note: In some situations after a major storm strikes , a community may not collect the level of detail of information as presented in the previous section. For example, the following basic information may be all that is collected from phone calls (Hermann, 1993):
D. Priority ranking of storm calls
Under major storm conditions, it is impossible to respond to and service calls on an individual basis. Therefore, only the most critical calls should be serviced in this manner. Priority service would be given to individual calls in the following order:
These calls will be handled by crews dispatched on an individual call basis.
Under major storm conditions ' the vast majority of calls will be serviced on a quarter-sectional basis; that is, one quarter section of the city at a time will be serviced, with efforts concentrated in the most severely damaged areas. The first and foremost objective of quarter-sectional clearance efforts is road clearing. Every possible effort should be made to clear non-arterial roads within the quarter sections to ensure the safe passage of emergency vehicles and to minimize the potential for nighttime automobile accidents created by downed trees. Road clearing is the priority operation when concentrating on quarter-sectional storm damage. Once sectional road clearing is completed, the efforts may concentrate on the quarter-sectional correction of broken branches hanging and broken branches down.
The major objectives of the Tree Division during the initial phases of response to a major storm is to clear right-of-ways and pile brush for later pick-up. During these initial phases, a minimum commitment should be made to picking up and disposing of brush. During the initial phases of the storm, clean up activities should be limited to those necessary to alleviate hazardous situations such as blockage of arterial streets, and to facilitate hazard reduction operations.
E. Trees growing on private property
During major storm conditions, Bureau of Forestry activity is extremely limited with respect to trees on private property. Activity will be limited to two options:
In both instances, only the minimum work necessary to achieve the clearance goals should be done.
F. Reporting property damage
Under major storm conditions, the reporting of property damage is coordinated by the Forestry Technical Service Coordinator. The Coordinator will serve as a field data gatherer and supervisor of those other personnel involved in property damage reporting. The coordinator should also be in radio contact with field offices and field crews and will respond to reports of property damage. They will also complete on-site evaluations. Photographic documentation of property damage and the tree conditions which lead to them is extremely important. Both black and white and color prints should be used to document such damage. Property damage reports must be filed.
G. Maintaining a log of emergency service activities
The crew performing the emergency tree service work should keep a log on the appropriate forms of those activities performed in conjunction with the storm clean up. Such logs must be uniformly maintained and filed at the conclusion of the storm clean up effort. Information gathered shall include, but not be limited to:
H. Clean up activities
The most time-consuming part of any storm response effort is the clean up of downed debris. In order to minimize the time necessary to remove debris from the public right-of-way and also to service the citizens in the most efficient manner, the following steps should be taken during debris clean up activities:
The Department of Public Works should immediately issue a press release detailing the magnitude of the storm and the expected clean up time. Additionally, the press release should request that citizens haul all debris from private trees and pile it between the sidewalk and the curb in an orderly fashion with the butt of the branches facing in one direction. The press release should also inform the citizens that the City will pick up the debris on a quarter-section basis.
Organize the clean up effort to maximize the use of mechanical advantage. Grapples and Prentice loaders should be routed to areas for handling of heavy wood debris. Each wood handling piece of equipment should be accompanied by between three and five 2-1/2-ton trucks, depending on the travel distance to the debris staging site and the nature of the debris being hauled.
The clean up of limbs and other debris which would not be considered large wood should be accomplished manually. This work will involve traversing every street within a quarter section to clean both public and private debris from the right of way. Manual hauling of brush may be accomplished in one of three ways: the use of chippers and chipping trucks, the use of open hauling or the use of sanitation packers. Crew configurations and assignments should be as follows:
I. Coordination with other bureaus
The City Forester will report to the Commissioner of Public Works regarding the need for clean up assistance from other City Bureaus or Departments. The necessity for using personnel from other Bureaus or Departments will be determined by the Commissioner of Public Works. At such time that it is decided to use outside help, the Assistant Superintendent of the Bureau of Forestry should contact emergency response coordinators from each Public Works Bureau. The extent and nature of the participation of the Bureaus will depend on the magnitude of the storm.
Laborers from the Bureaus of Street and Sewer Maintenance, Bridges and Buildings, and Traffic Engineering and Utilities will assist the Bureau in clean up activities. Crews coming from these Bureaus should be equipped with open 2-1/2-ton trucks with boxes capable of handling brush debris. They should be staffed by not more than two laborers and a Labor Crew Leader. These individuals will be assigned to specific districts and will receive their clean up assignment from the District Supervisor.
The Bureau of Sanitation will assist by supplying packers, packer personnel and supervisors to handle brush clean up. They will be assigned by the Assistant Superintendent of Forestry to operate a specific district. Assignment of quarter sections will be made by the District Supervisor.
Management personnel and technicians from all Public Works Bureaus will be assigned as field progress coordinators checking for completion of clean up activities and for obvious locations of hanging or downed branches.
J. Cost accounting
The Business Operations Manager is responsible for establishing work order numbers against which charges for storm damage clean up will be made. Two work order numbers should be established. The first is to handle emergency storm damage activities including hazard reduction and clean up. The second number will include follow-up repair of storm damaged trees.
The Business Operations Manager is also responsible to assure that the proper inter-departmental requisitions are processed for payment to assisting Bureaus.
K. Forestry Shop functions
Under major storm conditions, the Forestry Shop should discontinue all but emergency services. These services will include the repair and sharpening of chain saws, chippers and hand saws, and other necessary hand tools. Also, the issuing of hand tools, gasoline and oil supplies to field crews will be conducted as top priority.
Both Oak Park's and Milwaukee's early warning and immediate-reaction scenarios are well worth considering for adoption by medium- and large-sized communities, respectively. Though these procedures are specific to Oak Park and Milwaukee, they are comprehensive, time tested and up-to-date. A municipal government's public works director and urban forest manager should determine how the plans might be adapted to their own municipality. Undoubtedly, local climatological and geographical variations would modify the scenarios.
4.8 Other Considerations
The following items should be considered and planned for in the event of any natural disaster, large or small. For more detailed information on many of these topics, refer to Chapters 6 and 8.
4.9 Example--The Asplundh Municipal Storm Emergency Procedure
The Asplundh Municipal Storm Emergency Procedure serves as an excellent example of a planning procedure involving a national tree firm. Asplundh's procedure calls for the municipality to complete the following five steps (Asplundh, 1991):
Designate someone on your staff to act as the municipal storm coordinator.
Call the Asplundh Field Division office in your area (see local telephone directory).
Provide the following information:
Asplundh will then:
Finally, Asplundh will review the storm restoration operation with the municipality after completion of the work in order to make any necessary changes or adjustments for improved future performance.
The foregoing procedures, or one from another national tree expert firm, can be modified to meet the needs and budget of a small community. However, the smaller the municipality, the greater the preparedness and recovery responsibility which rests on the municipal chief executive officer, namely the mayor, town (or village) president, or manager.
4.10 For More Information
Asplundh. 1991. Customer storm emergency hot line. Willow Grove, PA, Asplundh Tree Expert Co.
Coder, K. D. Storm-damaged trees. Grounds Maintenance, (1992):33-42.
Fazio, J. R. 1988. When a storm strikes. National Arbor Day Foundation, Tree City USA Bulletin No. 2.
Koelling, M. R. and R. P. Kidd. 1979. Repairing storm damage to trees. Michigan State University, Cooperative Extension Service, Extension Bulletin E-1 364.
Matheny, N. P. and J. R. Clark. 1991. A photographic guide to the evaluation of hazard trees in urban areas. International Society of Arboriculture, Savoy, IL. 61874.
Merullo,V. Liabilities and duties associated with trees which abut streets and highways. Journal of Arboriculture 14(1988):129-131.
Ottman, K. 1993. Emergency storm response plan. Bureau of Forestry, Department of Public Works, Milwaukee, WI.
Pirone, P.P. 1988. Tree Maintenance. Oxford University Press, New York, 514 pages.
Skiera, J. 1990. Urbana arbor division storm recovery plan. Department of Public Works, Urbana, IL.
Stankovich,M.R.1991. Major tree damage control plan. Forestry Division, Oak Park, IL.
International Society of Arboriculture
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