I. Literature Review
II. Literature Cited
A recently published document by the Council of Planning
Librarians entitled "Planning for high-wind disasters: tornadoes, hurricanes
and severe storms, a partially annotated bibliography" annotates and lists
books, compendia, journal articles, reports, symposia and related publications
(Obermeyer 1989). This document would serve as an excellent resource for
disaster mitigation planners. Note that American Forests, The International
Society of Arboriculture and The National Arbor Day Foundation citations are
not included in Obermeyer's compilation.
After reviewing the work by Obermeyer and others, documents were
found to be listed under three categories related to managing the urban forest
to mitigate natural disasters. These references include: 1) general reviews, 2)
disaster planning, and 3) disaster recovery.
A. GENERAL REVIEWS
Nalivkin's (1982) work provides a global review of
natural disasters. He cites a broad array of disasters and their geographic
affinities as well as geological relationships. Nalivkin provides numerous
examples of dust storms, floods, hail and ice damage, hurricanes, snowstorms,
tornadoes, and thunderstorm squalls which were documented and recorded as
occurring in the northeastern United States. He uses lithographs, aerial and
surface photographs, and diagrams of fallen tree positions to illustrate and
support his text.
Gibilsco (1984) wrote an excellent, popularized narration
of storms and violent weather. in his descriptions and portrayals, he includes
how to avert flood damage, how to prepare for hurricanes and tornadoes, and how
to survive a blizzard.
B. DISASTER PLANNING
Foster's (1980) thesis on disaster planning emphasizes
safety and the preservation of life and property. He promotes an urban
community scenario which emphasizes that municipal staff, equipment and
information is usually available to implement many of the stages of disaster
mitigation. He stresses, however, that a redefinition of departmental roles, a
change in emphasis, and a strong commitment to achieve safety goals would
attain a higher disaster mitigation profile. Foster emphasizes the spatial
distribution of risk, safety by design, predicting and preventing disaster, and
developing warning systems, as well as disaster plans.
At the basic level of local government, Herman (1982)
insists on the careful organization of disaster plans, people and resources. He
includes training for disasters, how to staff an operations center and how to
coordinate with other agencies and organizations. He describes the elements of
disaster mitigation preparation. Herman also lists voluntary organizations
concerned with disaster service. Additionally, he cites U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency regional offices and state emergency management agencies.
Note: the majority of volunteer, federal and state offices with their telephone
numbers, which he cataloged, are still current.
C. DISASTER RECOVERY
"Community recovery from a major natural disaster"
by Rubin et al. (1985) examined 14 case studies of large and small
communities which were affected by and recovered from, one of the natural
disaster categories cited by Nalivkin. Fort Wayne, Indiana, as an example,
suffered severe flood damage in March, 1982. Damage sustained was $50 million.
Ten days after the March 13 inundation, the Mayor's office issued an
interdepartmental memo describing a four-phase flood recovery strategy. Phase I
analyzed Fort Wayne's response to the flood; Phase 11, led by an outside
consultant, dealt with public recovery issues, including disaster survey
reports and relief issues; Phase III was scheduled for a 30-day effort to
produce a local mitigation plan; and Phase IV prepared for a "Flood Festival"
to thank flood volunteers for their assistance. Results of this four-phase
mitigation operation for a city of 172,000 residents were outstanding, but
activities took longer than planned and were more expensive than
Our literature review concerning disaster recovery, both
for large and small municipalities, found that most of the authors'
concentrated on 1) crisis intervention (Tierney and Baisden, 1979); 2) disaster
analysis (Wright et al., 1979); 3) ethical as well as policy issues
pertaining to emergency management (Comfort et al., 1988); 4) mental
health of impacted populations (Laube and Murphey, 1985); and 5) social
repercussions (Friesema et al., 1979). Virtually no evaluation research
has been conducted on environmental benefits, monetary costs, psychological
amenities, or social impacts which relate to the replanting of urban trees and
forests after a disaster.
10.3 Literature Cited
Anon. 1985. Thunderstorms and lightening. National Weather
Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of
Commerce. 5 pages.
Asplundh. 1991. Customer storm emergency hot line. Willow
Grove, Pennsylvania, Asplundh Tree Expert Co. 19090
Comfort, L. K. et al. 1988. Managing disaster.
Durham, North Carolina, Duke University Press
Ebenreck, S. 1989. The value of trees. In: Shading our
cities, a resource guide for urban and community forests. Ed. G. Moll and
S. Ebenreck. Washington, D.C.: Island Press
Fazio, J. R. 1987. How to prune young shade trees. Tree
City USA Bulletin No. 1
Fazio, J. R. 1988. When a storm strikes. Tree City USA
Bulletin No. 2
Federal Emergency Management Agency. 1990. Disaster assistance
programs: A guide to Federal aid in natural disasters. Federal Emergency
Management Agency. Washington, D.C. 20472
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 1993.
Replanting the Urban Forest After Hurricane Andrew, Editor, James B.
Harroll, 27 pages.
Florida Department of Community Affairs Division of Emergency
Management, 1993. State of Florida Hazard Mitigation Plan (Draft)
Foster, H. D. 1980. Disaster planning. New York:
Friesema, H. P. et al. 1979. Aftermath. Beverly
Hills: Sage Productions
Gibilsco, S. 1984. Violent weather: hurricanes, tornadoes, and
storms. Blue Ridge Summit, Tab Books Inc.
Hanson, M., Gray, P. R., Greene, D., Reickenbach M., Bailey, K.,
Hunt C., Mooter, D., and Page B., 1987. Effective Tree Care Programs.
Natural Urban Forestry Assessment Working Group, National Association of State
Foresters and USDA Forest Service.
Harris, R. W. 1992. Arboriculture: integrated management of
landscape trees, shrubs, and vines. 2nd. Ed. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice
Herman, R. E. 1982. Disaster planning for local government.
New York: Universe Books
Hermann, J. 1993. Personal communication.
International Society of Arboriculture. 1992. 1992-1993 member
directory. ISA, Savoy, IL. 61874
Kestler, Edwin. ed. 1983. The thunderstorm in human
affairs. Univ. of Oklahoma Press, Norman. 186 pages
Kielbaso, J. J., Beauchamp, B. S., Larison, K. F., and Randall, C.
J., 1988. Trends in Urban Forestry Management, Baseline Data Report
20:1. Urban Data Service Publication International City Management Association,
Laube, J. and S. A. Murphy. 1985. Perspectives on disaster
recovery. Norwalk: Appleton-Century-Crofts
Matheny, N. and J. Clark. 1991. A photographic guide to the
evaluation of hazard trees in urban areas. International Society of
Arboriculture, Savoy, IL 61874
McCullen, J. and R. Webb. 1982. A manual on urban trees.
Dublin: An Foras Forbartha Merullo.
Miller, R. W. 1988. Urban forestry: planning and managing urban
greenspaces. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall
Morentz, J. W. et al. 1982. Practical mitigation.
Rockville, Research Alternatives, Inc.
Nalivkin. D. V. 1982. Hurricanes, storms and tornadoes. New
Delhi, Amerind Publishing Co.
Obermeyer, R. 1989. Planning for high-wind disasters:
tornadoes, hurricanes, and severe storms, a partially annotated
bibliography. CPL Bibliography 236. Council of Planning Librarians
Ossenbruggen, H.S. 1993. Personal communication
Ottman, K. 1990. Emergency storm response plan. Bureau of
Forestry, Department of Public Works, Milwaukee, WI
Pielke, Roger A. 1990. The hurricane. Routledge, London.
Pirone, P. 1988. Tree Maintenance. Oxford University Press,
New York, 514 pages.
Powers, W. and D. Ogan. 1992. Personal communication.
Rodbell, P. D., Emerging Issues. Urban Forests, Vol. 13,
No. 2, page 22.
Rubin, C. B. et al. 1985. Community recovery from a major
natural disaster. Institute of Behavioral Science, University of
Semrav, A. 1993. Helping Trees Weather Nature. Urban
Forests, Vol. 13, No. 1, pages 12-17.
Skiera, J. 1990. Urbana Arbor Division storm recovery plan.
Department of Public Works, Urbana, IL
Stankovich, M. R. 1991. Major tree damage control plan.
Forestry Division, Oak Park, IL
Tierney, K. J. and B. Baisden. 1979. Crisis intervention
programs for disaster victims: a source book and manual for smaller
communities. Disaster Research Center, Ohio State University
Ulrich, R. S. 1984. View through a window may influence
recovery from surgery. Science (224): 420421
U.S. Department of Commerce, Hurricane Andrew: South Florida
and Louisiana August 23-26, 1992, Natural Disaster Survey Report. National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and National Weather Service, Silver
Spring, Maryland. November 1993
Valentine, V. D. and M. J. 1992. Arboriculture and the law.
International Society of Arboriculture, Savoy, IL. 61874
Wenger, K. F. et al. 1984. Forestry handbook. Second
Edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons
Wright, J. D. et al. 1979. After the clean up. Beverly
Hills: Sage Publications